Birthmarks are common skin abnormalities or discolorations usually first noticed shortly after birth, or in baby’s early months.
There are two main types of birthmarks:
- Vascular birthmarks are made up of blood vessels that haven’t formed correctly. They are usually red. Two types of vascular birthmarks are hemangiomas and port-wine stains.
- Pigmented birthmarks are made of a cluster of pigment cells which cause color in skin. They can be many different colors, from tan to brown, gray to black, or even blue. Moles can be birthmarks.
No one knows what causes many types of birthmarks, but some run in families. Your baby’s doctor will look at the birthmark to see if it needs any treatment or if it should be watched. Pigmented birthmarks aren’t usually treated, except for moles. Treatment for vascular birthmarks includes laser surgery.
Most birthmarks are not serious, and some go away on their own. Some stay the same or get worse as you get older. Usually birthmarks are only a concern for your appearance. But certain types can increase your risk of skin cancer. If your birthmark bleeds, hurts, itches, or becomes infected, call your healthcare provider.
Here’s a little about a few of most common types of birthmarks.
Cafe Au Lait Spots
These permanent birthmarks, which vary in size and are light brown or coffee colored, occur most commonly on the baby’s torso, arms and legs. If more than six spots are present and are greater than 1.5 centimeters in diameter, have your healthcare provider assess your baby for potential health problems. These spots persist throughout life and may increase in number with age.
Port Wine Stains
Port wine stains are dark red or purple areas (maculas) appearing on one side of the face or on an arm or leg. Infants as young as 3 months of age have been treated successfully with laser treatment to remove the stain.
Stork Bites, Salmon Patches, Angel’s Kiss
Stork bites are reddish or pink patches often found above the hairline at the back of the neck, on the eyelids or between the baby’s eyes. These marks are caused by collections of capillary blood vessels close to the skin. They usually fade within the first two years of life. (As seen in photo at the top.)
A capillary hemangioma — a red, rubbery nodule with a roughened surface — is also called a strawberry nevus. The lesion is often not present at birth, but may appear as a permanent blanched area on the skin that is replaced by red nodules at 2 to 4 weeks of age. Fifty percent resolve spontaneously by age 5; 70 percent by age 7; 90 percent by age 9; and the rest by adolescence. (As seen at right.)
Large moles that are present at birth are congenital nevi or giant hairy nevi, and may increase your child’s risk of malignant melanoma, a form of skin cancer. Moles that are more than 8 inches in diameter pose the greatest risk. Have your healthcare provider examine any mole that is present at birth.
Mongolian spots, also called blue gray macula of infancy, are extremely common birthmarks. These large blue-gray or blue-black birthmarks sometimes resemble bruises. They are more common in dark-skinned babies, appearing on the lower back and legs. They often become less conspicuous with age, but do not disappear completely.