The diseases listed here either are more common in women than men, or affect many women and men.
Although each disease is unique, many share hallmark symptoms, such as fatigue, dizziness, and low-grade fever. For many autoimmune diseases, symptoms come and go, or can be mild sometimes and severe at others. When symptoms go away for a while, it’s called remission. Flares are the sudden and severe onset of symptoms.
They are listed in alphabetical order.
Types of autoimmune diseases and their symptoms
Alopecia areata (Al-uh-PEE-shuh AR-ee-AYT-uh)The immune system attacks hair follicles (the structures from which hair grows). It usually does not threaten health, but it can greatly affect the way a person looks.
Patchy hair loss on the scalp, face, or other areas of your body
Antiphospholipid (an-teye-FOSS-foh-lip-ihd) antibody syndrome (aPL) A disease that causes problems in the inner lining of blood vessels resulting in blood clots in arteries or veins.
Blood clots in veins or arteries
Lacy, net-like red rash on the wrists and knees
Autoimmune hepatitis The immune system attacks and destroys the liver cells. This can lead to scarring and hardening of the liver, and possibly liver failure.
Yellowing of the skin or whites of eyes
Stomach pain or upset
Celiac disease A disease in which people can’t tolerate gluten, a substance found in wheat, rye, and barley, and also some medicines. When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products that have gluten, the immune system responds by damaging the lining of the small intestines.
Abdominal bloating and pain
Diarrhea or constipation
Weight loss or weight gain
Missed menstrual periods
Itchy skin rash
Infertility or miscarriages
Diabetes type 1 A disease in which your immune system attacks the cells that make insulin, a hormone needed to control blood sugar levels. As a result, your body cannot make insulin. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in your blood. Too high blood sugar can hurt the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. But the most serious problem caused by diabetes is heart disease.
Being very thirsty
Feeling very hungry or tired
Losing weight without trying
Having sores that heal slowly
Dry, itchy skin
Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet
Having blurry eyesight
Graves’ disease (overactive thyroid) A disease that causes the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone.
Guillain-Barre (GEE-yahn bah-RAY) syndrome The immune system attacks the nerves that connect your brain and spinal cord with the rest of your body. Damage to the nerves makes it hard for them to transmit signals. As a result, the muscles have trouble responding to the brain.
Weakness or tingling feeling in the legs that might spread to the upper body
Paralysis in severe cases
Symptoms often progress relatively quickly, over a period of days or weeks, and often occur on both sides of the body.
Hashimoto’s (hah-shee-MOH-tohz) disease (underactive thyroid) A disease that causes the thyroid to not make enough thyroid hormone.
Sensitivity to cold
Muscle aches and stiff joints
Hemolytic anemia (HEE-moh-lit-ihk uh-NEE-mee-uh) The immune system destroys the red blood cells. Yet the body can’t make new red blood cells fast enough to meet the body’s needs. As a result, your body does not get the oxygen it needs to function well, and your heart must work harder to move oxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
Shortness of breath
Cold hands or feet
Yellowish skin or whites of eyes
Heart problems, including heart failure
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (id-ee-oh-PATH-ihk throm-boh-seye-toh-PEE-nik PUR-pur-uh) (ITP) A disease in which the immune system destroys blood platelets, which are needed for blood to clot.
Very heavy menstrual period
Tiny purple or red dots on the skin that might look like a rash.
Nosebleed or bleeding in the mouth
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) A disease that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s (krohnz) disease and ulcerative colitis (UHL-sur-uh-tiv koh-LEYE-tuhss) are the most common forms of IBD.
Diarrhea, which may be bloody
Some people also have:
Mouth ulcers (in Crohn’s disease)
Painful or difficult bowel movements (in ulcerative colitis)
Inflammatory myopathies (meye-OP-uh-theez) A group of diseases that involve muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Polymyositis (pol-ee-meye-uh-SYT-uhss) and dermatomyositis (dur-muh-toh-meye-uh-SYT-uhss) are 2 types more common in women than men.
Slow but progressive muscle weakness beginning in the muscles closest to the trunk of the body. Polymyositis affects muscles involved with making movement on both sides of the body. With dermatomyositis, a skin rash comes before or at the same time as muscle weakness.
May also have:
Fatigue after walking or standing
Tripping or falling
Difficulty swallowing or breathing
Multiple sclerosis (MUHL-tip-uhl sklur-OH-suhss) (MS) A disease in which the immune system attacks the protective coating around the nerves. The damage affects the brain and spinal cord.
Weakness and trouble with coordination, balance, speaking, and walking
Numbness and tingling feeling in arms, legs, hands, and feet
Symptoms vary because the location and extent of each attack vary
Myasthenia gravis (meye-uhss-THEEN-ee-uh GRAV-uhss) (MG) A disease in which the immune system attacks the nerves and muscles throughout the body.
Double vision, trouble keeping a steady gaze, and drooping eyelids
Trouble swallowing, with frequent gagging or choking
Weakness or paralysis
Muscles that work better after rest
Trouble climbing stairs or lifting things
Primary biliary cirrhosis (BIL-ee-air-ee sur-ROH-suhss) The immune system slowly destroys the liver’s bile ducts. Bile is a substance made in the liver. It travels through the bile ducts to help with digestion. When the ducts are destroyed, the bile builds up in the liver and hurts it. The damage causes the liver to harden and scar, and eventually stop working.
Dry eyes and mouth
Yellowing of skin and whites of eyes
Psoriasis (suh-REYE-uh-suhss) A disease that causes new skin cells that grow deep in your skin to rise too fast and pile up on the skin surface.
Thick red patches, covered with scales, usually appearing on the head, elbows, and knees
Itching and pain, which can make it hard to sleep, walk, and care for yourself
A form of arthritis that often affects the joints and the ends of the fingers and toes. Back pain can occur if the spine is involved.
Rheumatoid arthritis (ROO-muh-toid ar-THREYE-tuhss) A disease in which the immune system attacks the lining of the joints throughout the body.